Courting Racial Justice

President Harry Truman skirts Congress and uses the Justice Department ...


Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay

Alexander Hamilton was a distinguished New York lawyer; James Madison was one of many distinguished Virginians; John Jay was also a New York lawyer with wealthy and conservative associates in his state. Both Hamilton and Madison had been members of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia; Jay, with Benjamin Franklin and John Adams, had negotiated the Treaty of 1783 with Great Britain that had established the independence of the United States.